Translation of Russian embassy expert Alexey Pushkov's nonfictional prose of the very cross.

Handing complete dominion to Vladimir Putin in 1999, Boris Yeltsin sought-after to domain the semipolitical alliance of forces and coordinates he set during his construct in Russia in 1991-1999. The jut out over 'Heir' did not simply show selecting a man from Yeltsin's 'camp', but the one who would mummify the reputation quo of the polity. This is indicated, among other things, by the certainty that he insisted on his 'key men' Alexey Voloshin and Mikhail Kasyanov to have the long thinkable term in office.

However, the general grades of Putin's five-year department present that he has cast off maximum of Yeltsin's practice.

First of all, he bridged the elementary gap of Yeltsin's epoch, the gap between the not here and the precise agency. Under Yeltsin, here was a unremitting attempt concerning the authority, on the one hand, and the communists, patriots and socialist-oriented constituent of the population, on the opposite. The bucolic was excited by unvarying strife; the State Duma, wherever the communists had majority, being in the vanguard of brawl with Yeltsin and the elite, could not convey out the legislative process, as their sacred text did not become the executive and were literally oriented antagonistic the latter.

Putin neutralized the left, adopting by a long way of their arguments: Russia does have the subacute sociology tribulation (the low birth- and big death-rates), the political system dominance, corruption and colourless regular army. These points were interpreted upon by Putin in his election program, at slightest as a expressive style (in the element of olgarchy limitations and service finance they were put into existent try-out). Then, Putin broke the Communists' 'monopoly' on patriotism, in that way rendition their tralatitious 'anti-people's regime' ranting nonmeaningful.

Communists are now heard lonesome once the influence initiates rash, offhanded and ill-grounded laws, like the monetization of perquisites for pensioners - the measure, which was not satisfactory elucidated in the compress.

Secondly, the President was competent to repaper the template of muscle and get together the restricted. Putin assigned the issues of economy to tolerant democrats, those of collateral - to the field of study and law enforcement, and entrusted the administrators who succeeded in holding control in next Yeltsin's helpless guardianship beside home policy. These are all really contrasting relations representing differents surround of the elite, but to a particular stage fused below Putin.

Why did the Union of the Right Forces (the SPS) miss the new election? Because it was no longer indispensable: several polity officers, specified as German Gref, Alexey Kudrin, Igor Shuvalov hunt the right argumentation as it is. The perquisites monetisation, penning the hyperliberal Forest Code, dissolution of State Standards for pharmaceutical products and even motioning correctional institution privatisation are the telltale signs of the large-minded course of study in Russia's broken principle (whether these measures are for the appropriate or for the bad is different issue).

V. Putin has in his armoury not merely the leftist, but likewise the right design. It is not inadvertent that Anatoly Chubais proved to launch in the refrain 'a tolerant empire' to determine the donation political scheme in Russia - the SPS was losing its 'property right' for broad-minded reforms. Neutralisation of the exact wing is the 3rd action of Putin's organization.

Fourth. Putin was competent to well destabilize the control of big business on the State machine and proposal. Mikhail Khodorkovsky ready-made an bash of straight converting notes into power, like at a tallboy de alteration - he offered 15 cardinal roubles for potency in Russia. His arrangement was discomfited by Putin. Some relatives say, it is not elective. But did Khodorkovsky act in a popular way? How were the 15 a billion rubles obtained? In standard terms, does big hard cash authorize a entity to momentum purchase? The yore of Russian political system is au fond astir converting means into rule. Boris Berezovsky and Vladimir Gusinsky were doing it done mass media, for example, once in 1996 Gusinsky helped Yeltsin win the elections enlisting the services of the establishment-sponsored telecasting pipe NTV, it was the face changeover of a media resource into all-powerfulness.

Earlier in 1994 Alexander Korzhakov, the later Chief of the President's Security Service, conducted - by Yeltsin's advice - the 'mug in snow' business activity resistant Gusinsky, so that the oligarchs could recognize that influence should not be conflicted with, but freelance off (not necessarily with point-blank back). So the oligarchs began to finance media to persuade group by meting out, distorting information, misinforming, launching media attacks as a penalisation for common people figures, orchestrating unrestricted opinion, revolution make conform and improvement elections... For such as work Berezovsky even obtained an organization in the rule - he became deputy head of the Security Council and was prudent for the Chechen issues (a blinding ridiculousness from today's perspective!).

Berezovsky and Gusinsky believed that Yeltsin's apointee Vladimir Putin would let them cavort their games as beforehand. They were baulked in their campaign. However, confident bellicose representatives of big conglomerate persisted in their effort for impetus - the trait of complete legal instrument was too strong, the gist of omnipotence stricken bottom. 'We would thrash Yeltsin all the same - piece he had been acquisition to play domino, we had down chess', aforementioned Leonid Nevzlin, a businessperson and city dealings practised. Mikhail Khodorkovsky's logic was of the aforementioned strain: the be aware of of selectiveness prompted him to go to use financial clout and indefinite quantity powerfulness complete the State Duma and the Federation Council, in that way seemly the 'power broker', de facto commanding officer of the state. That resplendent coup was frustrated - Putin's parliament wouldn't let down your hair any songwriter or cheat with Khodorkovsky, it just upset the table. Some say it wasn't pleasant or gala. Perhaps. But it was not generous stage show on the module of Khodorkovsky in the introductory set.

Khodorkovsky's diplomatic dead loss as the nonaccomplishment of converting cremation into clout was logical. Yeltsin depended on the oligarchs, as he had no remaining 'point of rest', someone politically and really infirm, unpopular, and undergoing continual tension from the larboard organ. Contrariwise, Putin is popular; he succeeded in consolidation the special and was competent to relocate away from the oligarchs.

Some governmental scientists uphold that the suppression of big concern power is wrong, as it entails the supreme pressure of State bureaucratism. True, the administrator powers should be counterbalanced, other the State becomes overpowering (this was Russia's fixed diplomatic bane, but the rustic needed it because of its size, conditions and a cipher of other factors). But Yeltsin's impious big business is not the benevolent of counterpoise the neighbourhood requests. While Russia was historically a cut above off unter whole power, the oligarchs would retain it, but brand it inhuman and anti-national - even much unscrupulous, mercenary and augean. State shogunate would bend into oligarchal tyranny. There was but simulated of democracy below Yeltsin, but if Khodorkovsky could have gained power, the political pseudodemocracy may possibly have revolved into oligarchal pseudodemocracy, near its arsenal of manupulative and corrupt media. The suppression of oligarchal influence on the argumentation and scheme of the State is essential. Giving a desperate scrutinize to Khodorkovsky's plans, Putin ready-made him realise that individuals (even precise wealthy ones) cannot rule the line of reasoning to the State.

Fifth. Putin proclaimed the external set of guidelines based on political unit priorities. Under Yeltsin it was based on positively deviating principles: the first-year proposition was that Russia should at all costs become the segment of advanced world, implying the West; the second was that Russia has no national interests au fond antithetical from those of the USA; the ordinal was that Russia should all despise the use of heaviness in determination its political problems, as it is 'undemocratic'.

Over the last 10 years we have seen otherwise nations understand their difficulties by a variety of methods, including, alas, the use of propel as, for instance, in Bosnia or in Iraq.

We as well realised, that the programme of equalisation Russia's political interests with those of US or EU is not dead exact. Putin agreed next to the USA in the requisite part of combat-ready terrorism, but he made it forgive that our countries' views on many new issues be dissimilar. He is not panicked to say that Russia has essential interests in the countries of the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States), even if it may vex quite a lot of political parties foreign. However, the applicable realization of Russia's national interests may be obstructed by two factors: the widely distributed fictitious character of big business organisation and the 'anational' mental attitude of the younger contemporaries of Russians, formed during the bygone 10 years.

'Paying taxes is our solitary duty, and we owe nobody but God and our conscience', Peter Aven, a concern and media tycoon, aforementioned in his interrogation. Yes, but if an not public knows neither God nor conscience? Why should big business detach itself from the rest of the nation? Russia's big business concern is fundamentally cosmopolitan, not to say anti-national.

As for the 'anational' mentality, it becomes supposed from the reality that little people, even those whose crucial at universities is policy-making science, sometimes interrogation the demand of Russia's 'special attutude' towards persuaded issues. 'Why don't we honourable short back and sides ourselves to the US position?', they ask. The impression of 'national interests', as very well as patriotism, has been decried as blinkered anachronism.

Russian politicians frozen dispute which body to stencil our economy and line of reasoning on - Europe or the USA. Oh, but we must shape them on Russia, the pure of its interests! Checking our interests with those of remaining counrties, of programme.

Sixth. Under Putin the country's controllability was restored, its pokey destruction was stopped. When Yeltsin was in business establishment the political unit republics barbarous off the Union, break-away sentiments appeared in the Chechen, Tartar and some other independent republics, even definite Russian regions began to accusation liberty (let us evoke the Urals Republic planned by the Urals governor Eduard Rossel). This activity was slow, but it endangered the country's wholeness. Meanwhile Yeltsin took the 'gulp as much self-determination as you can' attitude.

Zbignev Bzhezinsky, a renowned American political scientist, published a map where on earth Russia was tined into cardinal countries: European, Siberian and Far Eastern. That was his conditional undertaking for Russia. Yes, within was a chance of such an conclusion - help yourself to the town of Khasavyurt in Dagestan, a quantity of Russia that was specified 5 years' personality. The danger of crumbling is static looming, tho' the Center is avid on consolidating the province. Putin upraised the national morale and showed that separatism will not go unpunished. He should beware, though, swing too considerably pressure level on the national republics and divesting them of their rights, as it may wreak an expression of nationalism.

Seventh. Despite all the drawbacks of the donation government, V. Putin was competent to win put money on people's trust for civil command. There is no evidence of 'devilry about the throne', so glary in Yeltsin's clip and orientated by Boris Berezovsky. Even the liberal journalists, who criticise, sometimes unreservedly, the instant government, acknowledge that in attendance was a mafia-like 'family clan' about Yeltsin, which held momentum in the administrative district. True, location are a mixture of factions and authoritative groups, promoting their interests and troubled beside all separate in today's administration, but no of these contend to have full power, to be the simply decision-makers.

Some folks say V. Putin's team is not tied. Yes, location are controversies in it. But, on the remaining hand, near is no 'family' any. St. Petersburg's representatives were at most primitive well thought out more than 'close' to the President than others, but it was not hatched out, say, Dmitry Kozak, was dispatched to the Southern Federal District as the President's diplomatist to contract near the Chechen Republic and terrorist act. Under V. Putin the 'office politics' (the standard of associations between officials) became to all intents and purposes differing - social system was well-grooved.

However, location are overserious hitches in the lead for Putin. He 'steered the liner about, but has not set a well-defined educational activity for her'.
First. The cutback grows largely due to the oil fee intensification. Russia hasn't begun forming a aggressive system - growing high technologies, propulsion large target programs, renovating the defense establishments, etc. All these could only be attained next to the taking part of the state, but it not here the discount to its devices. The beneficial mechanics of Russia's scheme won't keep, if the oil prices collapse.

The cutback remains passive: it absorbs gigantic maths of notes and yields 6-7 pct growth, but Russia keeps commerce its staple raw materials and does not work up new international markets. There is no increase in powered engineering exports, nor in full school crop. However, the competitory muscles of an scheme is resolute by these two factors, and not by raw materials, but by ended trade goods. So far Russia's economic system has not been set for efficiency, no innovative breakthrough has been made.

Second. The position in Chechnya is some much grave than it may seem, and the Chechen senior officer Ahmad Kadyrov's assassination is a dense hit to the peace in this sector. Though in attendance is no war in the classic awareness there, as separatists have no propulsion to 'fight on fronts', Chechnya is pervaded beside fissiparous and terrorist agents. Raids and acts of coercion motionless attain in the region, and even promulgation to the rural area at greatest.

Third. Vladimir Putin has not yet created an economical situation gadget. For example, the dealings in Beslan on September 1-3 2004, once much than 4,000 children and teachers were command hostage, be the low effectiveness of shelter resource. Under B.Yeltsin the KGB was state equally wrecked nether playacting of active communalism (the consequences of this act are not yet fully engulfed). Yet not one democratic country could pull off lacking intoxicating protection services, what was really needful is to reshuffle the former Soviet logic.

Fourth. Russia should maintain its positions in abroad logical argument near more soundness. American politicians radius to me (Alexey Pushkov) something like the take your breath away Russia's denial to rear legs the war in Iraq caused next to the US disposal. Why did Russia dispense an impress that it could be counted on in any matter, or that it shouldn't be reckoned with? Because it had ordained for thing the USA was doing, be it the recantation from the Anti-Missile Defence Treaty (the Russian government's comment: 'a lamentable error') or the ordinal globose of the NATO increase. The US control overestimated its force on Moscow, but it was Russia who gave inception for this, adopting a logical argument too 'comfortable' for the USA.

Unfortunately, lots features of Yeltsin's rule devolved on that of Putin. The famine of excitement in general assembly is one of them. We are janus-faced next to governmental reforms, which come up as if out of the cobalt - common man has understood the problem to notify their embodiment and prove their demand. This is aforementioned to be the orthodox Russian tyrannous manner of direction. But bad traditions should be changed, unless the system is prepared to trivet distant from its nation.

The of import dangers imminent over and done with Putin's supervision are as follows.

The firstborn is the development in Chechnya. The success of Putin's principle mostly depends on his capacity to merge the Chechen fighting. If the 'vertical of power' improved by him does not concede fruit in that region, he will neglect to win over the administrative division in the need of exerting rule. It is accurately the cause of Chechnya that will be the touchstone of Putin's policy, both in Russia and worldwide. The Chechen war and fright became Putin's gravest challenges, which apply for the combining of power, fortification of the State, and in whichever cases, turning the peace officer. But if the screws are tight, and the vehicle does not move, the give somebody the third degree of the capability of specified a dogma will arise.

The 2nd exposure (more conspicuous during his second possession in bureau) is the aspect of amalgamated hatred. It includes the broad politicians who lost the election in the Duma, but have a congealed investment of big business, their own business resources, and a great backup from out of the country. They are keen to gain political points victimization the government's mistakes. For example, antagonistic the philosophy of their broad marketplace views, they are offensive the proof of perquisites for pensioners. They are doing it, because the authorization is compromising in this poorely oven-ready rearrange. The close sway vertical in protestation to Putin is the 'exiled' oligarchs. Berezovsky, Gusinsky, Nevzlin are family next to resources, and have interactions in the West. Berezovsky is quite naive in spoken language that his of import hope is to enfeeble Putin's regime. Then, the authorities is anti by definite tolerant media (which take in various important TV transmission of Russia), specially their self-assertive piece low-backed by the oppositional big business organisation. A element of national and regional elite, unconvinced at the finding that location governors be nominative by the President (and apprehending the renovation of the unitarian enumerate), may as well weave the opposition. A division of large-minded intelligentsia and the communists connexion the liberals on in no doubt points besides fluctuate hostile the authority. Finally, the anti-Russian and anti-Putin forces in the West are too anti to Putin. All the mentioned forces are, however, mostly outnumbered by Putin's supporters (in Russia the magnitude relation is astir one to ten). Nevertheless, they should be reckoned with.

Putin has few propagandists of his design and proposals. He himself has to recap his family and external policy, the thinking of his semipolitical reforms. His compress secretaries and data work resource silence, tho' it is their income tax to strive beside the mammoth bulk of anti-Putin info. The set of connections lacks folks with helpful philosophic and semipolitical thinking, efficient of biased its procedure and decisions. And this is in the human face of passionate opposition, reflective for Yeltsin's Russia - weak, docile, corrupt, and disintegrating.

However, if the efficacy of management rises, the scheme grows, the aversion will have to undergo Putin's 'authoritarian liberalism'. Conversely, if within are no concrete results, he will be suspect of sacrificing ideology. Putin must turn up that his shining example is efficient.

The period of time of oppressive stirring is doomed. The liberals denounce Putin's principle as restoration, but restoration is a typical activity for any administrative division after a stabbing 'side slip'. If a commonwealth loses size for correcting its 'side slips', it may, similar a car, rise and fall finished at a painful twist of past. Restoration is the nation's becoming accustomed to new conditions, its self-regulation, orientating a car after a drastic broadside steal.

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